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Hiera and Facts

为什么用hiera: https://docs.puppet.com/hiera/3.1/#why-hiera

  • hierarchy层级体系。可以设置公共属性,也可以覆写!
  • “注入”设置 class 中的属性值。
  • hiera_include 通过配置来完成site.pp同样的功能,并且比 node 更加强大灵活(数组值可以合并)。

基本概念:

  • hiera.yaml 默认配置文件放在 $codedir/hiera.yaml 。 结合puppet使用时可以通过修改 puppet.conf 的 hiera_config 自定义配置的文件。
  • hierarchy hierarchy定义好可以简化很多工作量。如需要根据操作系统 %{::osfamily} 进行适配。
  • datasource yaml格式介绍。

windows cygwin命令行环境配置

winse@Lenovo-PC ~
$ cat bin/hiera
#!/bin/sh

# default puppetlabs config in c:\Users\winse\Puppetlabs
export HOME=/cygdrive/c/Users/winse

name=`basename $0`

# execute
"C:/Progra~1/Puppet~1/Puppet/bin"/$name.bat "$@"


winse@Lenovo-PC ~
$ cat .bash_profile
...
function hiera_look(){
  code_dir=`puppet config print codedir | sed 's/\r//' `
  ~/bin/hiera -c "$code_dir/hiera.yaml" --debug "$@" ::environment=production
}

HelloWorld

winse@Lenovo-PC /cygdrive/d/eshore-shells/puppet/dta/code
$ cat /cygdrive/c/Users/winse/.puppetlabs/etc/puppet/puppet.conf
[main]
codedir = D:/eshore-shells/puppet/dta/code
hiera_config = $codedir/hiera.yaml

certname = winse

winse@Lenovo-PC /cygdrive/d/eshore-shells/puppet/dta/code
$ cat hiera.yaml
---
:backends:
  - yaml
:hierarchy:
  - "nodes/%{::trusted.certname}"
  - common

:yaml:
  :datadir: "D:/eshore-shells/puppet/dta/code/environments/%{::environment}/hieradata"


winse@Lenovo-PC /cygdrive/d/eshore-shells/puppet/dta/code
$ cat environments/production/hieradata/common.yaml
whoami: winse


winse@Lenovo-PC ~
$ hiera_look whoami
DEBUG: 2016-05-03 11:27:41 +0100: Hiera YAML backend starting
DEBUG: 2016-05-03 11:27:41 +0100: Looking up whoami in YAML backend
DEBUG: 2016-05-03 11:27:41 +0100: Looking for data source common
DEBUG: 2016-05-03 11:27:41 +0100: Found whoami in common
winse

与Puppet结合使用

参考案例

主要功能

  • hiera获取puppet-facts的属性
  • puppet读取hiera中的属性
  • hiera注入设置puppet-module的属性: 获取到第一个就返回了(类似于hiera),对于strings, arrays, hashes类型 cannot merge values from multiple hierarchy levels; 需要使用来 hiera_array or hiera_hash 代替。
  • hiera_include

动手实践

winse@Lenovo-PC /cygdrive/d/eshore-shells/puppet/dta/code/environments/production
$ tree .
.
├── hieradata
│   ├── common.yaml
│   └── nodes
│       └── winse.yaml
├── manifests
│   └── site.pp
└── modules
    └── helloworld
        └── manifests
            └── init.pp

$ cat hieradata/common.yaml
whoami: "%{calling_module} - %{calling_class} - %{calling_class_path} - %{::domain}"

$ cat hieradata/nodes/winse.yaml  | iconv -f gbk -t utf8
---
classes:
  - helloworld::hello
  - helloworld::world

# 文件编码需要与环境匹配,windows要GBK的
helloworld::hello::hello: 你好

$ cat modules/helloworld/manifests/init.pp

class helloworld::hello ($hello = "hello"){

  notify {$hello :
  }

}

class helloworld::world {

  notify {hiera('whoami') : # 不推荐在module中使用hiera方法,这里仅为了演示获取calling_module等
  }

}

$ cat manifests/site.pp

hiera_include('classes')

$ puppet apply environments/production/manifests/site.pp
Notice: Compiled catalog for winse in environment production in 0.28 seconds
Notice: 你好
Notice: /Stage[main]/Helloworld::Hello/Notify[你好]/message: defined 'message' as '你好'
Notice: helloworld - helloworld::world - helloworld/world - DHCP HOST
Notice: /Stage[main]/Helloworld::World/Notify[helloworld - helloworld::world - helloworld/world - DHCP HOST]/message: defined 'message' as 'helloworld - helloworld::world - helloworld/world - DHCP HOST'
Notice: Applied catalog in 0.02 seconds

# 测试获取hiera变量
$ puppet apply -e "notice(hiera('whoami'))"
Notice: Scope(Class[main]):  -  -  - DHCP HOST
Notice: Compiled catalog for winse in environment production in 0.05 seconds
Notice: Applied catalog in 0.03 seconds

$ puppet apply -e "notice(hiera('classes'))"
Notice: Scope(Class[main]): [helloworld::hello, helloworld::world]
Notice: Compiled catalog for winse in environment production in 0.05 seconds
Notice: Applied catalog in 0.02 seconds

facts

自定义指标

三种方式:

  • 文件: yaml/json/txt。推荐放置到 modules/[name]/facts.d 目录下
  • 可执行脚本输出键值对。推荐放置到 modules/[name]/facts.d 目录下,可执行脚本!
  • ruby。放置到 modules/[name]/lib/facter 。custom facts should go in lib/facter/
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$ cat environments/production/modules/helloworld/facts.d/simple_facts.yaml
---
my_fact: my_value

$ puppet facts find --debug | grep -iE "my_fact|helloworld"
Debug: Loading external facts from D:/eshore-shells/puppet/dta/code/environments/production/modules/helloworld/facts.d
Debug: Facter: searching "D:/eshore-shells\puppet\dta\code\environments\production\modules\helloworld\facts.d" for external facts.
Debug: Facter: resolving facts from YAML file "D:/eshore-shells\puppet\dta\code\environments\production\modules\helloworld\facts.d\simple_facts.yaml".
Debug: Facter: fact "my_fact" has resolved to "my_value".
Debug: Facter: completed resolving facts from YAML file "D:/eshore-shells\puppet\dta\code\environments\production\modules\helloworld\facts.d\simple_facts.yaml".
    "my_fact": "my_value",


winse@Lenovo-PC /cygdrive/d/eshore-shells/puppet/dta/code
$ cat environments/production/modules/helloworld/lib/facter/users.rb
Facter.add('users') do
  setcode do
    ["winse", "winseliu"]
  end
end

$ puppet facts | grep -3 users
    "uptime_days": 0,
    "uptime_hours": 1,
    "uptime_seconds": 6980,
    "users": [
      "winse",
      "winseliu"
    ],

–END

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