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Hadoop上建索引index的程序

源码

\hadoop-1.0.0\src\contrib\index

主要涉及的类

  • org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.main.UpdateIndex
  • org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.mapred.IndexUpdater
  • org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.mapred.IndexUpdateMapper
  • org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.mapred.IndexUpdatePartitioner
  • org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.mapred.IndexUpdateCombiner
  • org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.mapred.IndexUpdateReducer
  • org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.example.LineDocInputFormat
  • org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.mapred.IndexUpdateOutputFormat
  • org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.mapred.IndexUpdateConfiguration

解析

1、UpdateIndex类(main实现读取控制台参数)

UpdateIndex是整个程序的入口,提供参数给用户配置。

  • -inputPaths  –>mapred.input.dir  (V)
  • -outputPath –>mapred.output.dir  (V)
  • -shards –>最终每个reduct建立的索引存放hdfs位置 (V)
  • -indexPath –>sea.index.path
  • -numShards –>sea.num.shards
  • -numMapTasks –>mapred.map.tasks  (V)
  • -conf 添加Configuration xml文件形式的配置方式

shards  通过转换最终保存到Configuration的sea.index.shards

shards参数 与 indexPath和numShards参数 设置一种就可以了。如果没有设置shards,则在main方法中会通过indexPath和numShards生成得到 shards 参数。

从Configuration中获得Updater类: IndexUpdateConfiguration.getIndexUpdaterClass()

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  public Class<? extends IIndexUpdater> getIndexUpdaterClass() {
    return conf.getClass("sea.index.updater", IndexUpdater.class,
        IIndexUpdater.class);
  }

在UpdateIndex最终调用IndexUpdater

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updater.run(conf, inputPaths, outputPath, numMapTasks, shards);

2、IndexUpdater类(配置MapReduce Job)

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  public void run(Configuration conf, Path[] inputPaths, Path outputPath,
      int numMapTasks, Shard[] shards) throws IOException {
    JobConf jobConf =
        createJob(conf, inputPaths, outputPath, numMapTasks, shards);
    JobClient.runJob(jobConf);
  }
...
...
  JobConf createJob(Configuration conf, Path[] inputPaths, Path outputPath,
      int numMapTasks, Shard[] shards) throws IOException {
    setShardGeneration(conf, shards);

    // iconf.set sets properties in conf
    IndexUpdateConfiguration iconf = new IndexUpdateConfiguration(conf);
    Shard.setIndexShards(iconf, shards);

    // MapTask.MapOutputBuffer uses "io.sort.mb" to decide its max buffer size
    // (max buffer size = 1/2 * "io.sort.mb").
    // Here we half-en "io.sort.mb" because we use the other half memory to
    // build an intermediate form/index in Combiner.
    iconf.setIOSortMB(iconf.getIOSortMB() / 2);

setShardGeneration(conf, shards);方法从shard path路径获得segment_N来获得generation,并更新shard实例的gen属性。

Shard.setIndexShards(iconf, shards);则是序列化shards为String写入到Configuration中。

接下来的代码,就是设置InputFormat,OutputFormat, Map, Reduce,Partitioner,  KeyValue Class, Combine等一些列的Job必备的参数。

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// create the job configuration
JobConf jobConf = new JobConf(conf, IndexUpdater.class);
jobConf.setJobName(this.getClass().getName() + "_"
    + System.currentTimeMillis());

// provided by application
FileInputFormat.setInputPaths(jobConf, inputPaths);
FileOutputFormat.setOutputPath(jobConf, outputPath);

jobConf.setNumMapTasks(numMapTasks);

// already set shards
jobConf.setNumReduceTasks(shards.length);

jobConf.setInputFormat(iconf.getIndexInputFormatClass());

// set by the system
jobConf.setMapOutputKeyClass(IndexUpdateMapper.getMapOutputKeyClass());
jobConf.setMapOutputValueClass(IndexUpdateMapper.getMapOutputValueClass());
jobConf.setOutputKeyClass(IndexUpdateReducer.getOutputKeyClass());
jobConf.setOutputValueClass(IndexUpdateReducer.getOutputValueClass());

jobConf.setMapperClass(IndexUpdateMapper.class);
jobConf.setPartitionerClass(IndexUpdatePartitioner.class);
jobConf.setCombinerClass(IndexUpdateCombiner.class);
jobConf.setReducerClass(IndexUpdateReducer.class);

jobConf.setOutputFormat(IndexUpdateOutputFormat.class);

return jobConf;

3、LineDocInputFormat(数据输入类)

从IndexUpdateConfiguration.getIndexInputFormatClass()可以获得当前默认使用的数据输入类org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.example.LineDocInputFormat。

这里定义了org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.example.LineDocRecordReader来解析数据,获取建立索引的命令(Insert, Update, Delete)和对应的数据。

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  public synchronized boolean next(DocumentID key, LineDocTextAndOp value)
      throws IOException {
    if (pos >= end) {
      return false;
    }

    // key is document id, which are bytes until first space
    if (!readInto(key.getText(), SPACE)) { // 把读到的第一个数据写入Key
      return false;
    }

    // read operation: i/d/u, or ins/del/upd, or insert/delete/update
    Text opText = new Text();
    if (!readInto(opText, SPACE)) {
      return false;
    }
    String opStr = opText.toString();
    DocumentAndOp.Op op;
    if (opStr.equals("i") || opStr.equals("ins") || opStr.equals("insert")) {
      op = DocumentAndOp.Op.INSERT;
    } else if (opStr.equals("d") || opStr.equals("del")
        || opStr.equals("delete")) {
      op = DocumentAndOp.Op.DELETE;
    } else if (opStr.equals("u") || opStr.equals("upd")
        || opStr.equals("update")) {
      op = DocumentAndOp.Op.UPDATE;
    } else {
      // default is insert
      op = DocumentAndOp.Op.INSERT;
    }
    value.setOp(op);

    if (op == DocumentAndOp.Op.DELETE) {
      return true;
    } else {
      // read rest of the line
      return readInto(value.getText(), EOL);
    }
  }

把InputStream offset到分隔符的数据写入到text

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private boolean readInto(Text text, char delimiter) throws IOException

Sample 写道

0 ins apache dot org
2 ins apache
3 ins apache
4 ins apache

0 del
1 upd hadoop
2 del
3 upd hadoop

4、IndexUpdateMapper(最终形成IntermediateForm传递给Combiner和Reducer处理)

· ILocalAnalysis –>org.apache.hadoop.contrib.index.example.LineDocLocalAnalysis

把Text组成为Lucene需要的Document。

· DocumentAndOp

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public class DocumentAndOp implements Writable {

  private Op op; // 
  private Document doc; // INSERT UPDATE
  private Term term; // DELETE UPDATE

· IntermediateForm

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public class IntermediateForm implements Writable {

  private final Collection<Term> deleteList;
  private RAMDirectory dir;
  private IndexWriter writer;
  private int numDocs;

  public void process(DocumentAndOp doc, Analyzer analyzer) throws IOException {
    if (doc.getOp() == DocumentAndOp.Op.DELETE
        || doc.getOp() == DocumentAndOp.Op.UPDATE) {
      deleteList.add(doc.getTerm());

    }

    if (doc.getOp() == DocumentAndOp.Op.INSERT
        || doc.getOp() == DocumentAndOp.Op.UPDATE) {

      if (writer == null) {
        // analyzer is null because we specify an analyzer with addDocument
        writer = createWriter();
      }

      writer.addDocument(doc.getDocument(), analyzer);
      numDocs++;
    }

  }

  public void process(IntermediateForm form) throws IOException {
    if (form.deleteList.size() > 0) {
      deleteList.addAll(form.deleteList);
    }

    if (form.dir.sizeInBytes() > 0) {
      if (writer == null) {
        writer = createWriter();
      }

      writer.addIndexesNoOptimize(new Directory[] { form.dir });
      numDocs++;
    }

  }

· HashingDistributionPolicy

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public class HashingDistributionPolicy implements IDistributionPolicy {

  private int numShards;

  public void init(Shard[] shards) {
    numShards = shards.length;
  }

  public int chooseShardForInsert(DocumentID key) {
    int hashCode = key.hashCode();
    return hashCode >= 0 ? hashCode % numShards : (-hashCode) % numShards;
  }

  public int chooseShardForDelete(DocumentID key) {
    int hashCode = key.hashCode();
    return hashCode >= 0 ? hashCode % numShards : (-hashCode) % numShards;
  }

}

IndexUpdateMapper.map(K, V, OutputCollector<Shard, IntermediateForm>, Reporter)

根据DocumentAndOp形成IntermediateForm,以及DistributionPolicy选择Shard,传入Combiner。

评注: 这里每条数据都要开启和关闭Writer,消耗应该不小。

5、IndexUpdateCombiner

把该节点的IntermediateForm合并成一个大的IntermediateForm集合。

评注: 感觉作用不是很大,合并减少的数据量有限; 但是却又要初始化和关闭一次Writer。

6、IndexUpdateReducer

把从Mapper传递来的IntermediateForm写入到ShardWriter。最终把Lucene索引写入到IndexPath下。

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 public ShardWriter(FileSystem fs, Shard shard, String tempDir,
      IndexUpdateConfiguration iconf) throws IOException

在Reducer最后关闭ShardWriter时,由于要等待比较长的时间。这里使用一个新的线程来发送心跳。 使用hadoop/编写mapreduce程序 注意点(! 不要关闭mapreduce的超时)

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new Closeable() {
  volatile boolean closed = false;

  public void close() throws IOException {
    // spawn a thread to give progress heartbeats
    Thread prog = new Thread() {
      public void run() {
        while (!closed) {
          try {
            fReporter.setStatus("closing");
            Thread.sleep(1000);
          } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            continue;
          } catch (Throwable e) {
            return;
          }
        }
      }
    };

    try {
      prog.start();

      if (writer != null) {
        writer.close();
      }
    } finally {
      closed = true;
    }
  }
}.close();

· ShardWriter

把索引写到本地,等处理完了数据后,关闭IndexWriter后把索引库转入拷贝到HDFS持久化。

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  // move the files created in the temp dir into the perm dir
  // and then delete the temp dir from the local FS
  private void moveFromTempToPerm() throws IOException {
    try {
      FileStatus[] fileStatus =
          localFs.listStatus(temp, LuceneIndexFileNameFilter.getFilter());
      Path segmentsPath = null;
      Path segmentsGenPath = null;

      // move the files created in temp dir except segments_N and segments.gen
      for (int i = 0; i < fileStatus.length; i++) {
        Path path = fileStatus[i].getPath();
        String name = path.getName();

        if (LuceneUtil.isSegmentsGenFile(name)) {
          assert (segmentsGenPath == null);
          segmentsGenPath = path;
        } else if (LuceneUtil.isSegmentsFile(name)) {
          assert (segmentsPath == null);
          segmentsPath = path;
        } else {
          fs.completeLocalOutput(new Path(perm, name), path);
        }
      }

      // move the segments_N file
      if (segmentsPath != null) {
        fs.completeLocalOutput(new Path(perm, segmentsPath.getName()),
            segmentsPath);
      }

      // move the segments.gen file
      if (segmentsGenPath != null) {
        fs.completeLocalOutput(new Path(perm, segmentsGenPath.getName()),
            segmentsGenPath);
      }
    } finally {
      // finally delete the temp dir (files should have been deleted)
      localFs.delete(temp);
    }
  }

【原文地址】

–END

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